Quality of a Teacher
This article will cover:
- TEACHER EDUCATION
- DETERMINANTS OF TEACHER QUALITY
- PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE
- SUBJECT-MATTER KNOWLEDGE
One of the areas that encourages national development is education that ensures the development of effective human resources. Institutions with strong educational structures lead a society inhabited by enlightened people, who bring about positive economic progress and social transformation. A positive social transformation and associated economic growth is achieved when people apply their skills while in school. We are all facilitated by one of the ‘teachers’ to acquire these skills. For this reason, there is no need to ignore the role of teachers in countries seeking economic and social development and their role in national development.
Teachers are the main reason for students to succeed in education. The performance of teachers determines not only the quality of education but also the general performance of their trained students. So teachers themselves should get the best education, so that they can help train students in the best way. It is known that the quality of teachers and quality teaching are some of the important factors that shape the learning and social and academic growth of students. Teachers will ensure high-quality, quality training to manage classrooms properly and facilitate learning. This is why teacher quality is still a concern, even in countries where students consistently achieve higher scores in international exams, such as Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In this national country, the main importance of teachers is because it can lead to the success of potential students.
The structure of teacher education changes in almost all countries in response to the search for productive teachers who understand the current needs of students or only the demands of teachers. Changes are made to quality teachers and sometimes simply to ensure that classrooms are not teacher-free. In the United States, how to encourage high-quality teachers has been the subject of debate, and for the past decade, Even in Japan and other eastern countries where there are more teachers than needed and structures have been put in place to ensure that high quality teachers are produced and employed, issues related to teachers and quality of education are still a concern (Ogawa, Fuji and Iuka, 2013). Teacher education is therefore no joke anywhere. This article is in two parts. It first discusses the Ghanaian teacher education system and in the second part looks at some of the determinants of quality education.
Ghana continues its deliberate efforts to produce quality teachers for its basic school classrooms. As Benh (200) points out, the goal of teacher education in Ghana is to provide a complete teacher education program through the expansion of primary teacher training and in-service training programs, which will produce qualified teachers who will help improve teaching effectiveness and learn to continue in school. Primary school education for primary school teachers in Ghana was provided only at the College of Education (COE), until a few days ago, when the University of Cape Coast, Central University College and other third institutions were joined. The most striking difference between these is that programs offered by other third-party institutions are universities that teach, test, and certify their students, while colleges offer education, while Cape Coast University, through the Institute of Education, awards and certifies. The training programs offered by these organizations are attempts to provide many qualified teachers to teach in schools. The National Accreditation Board approves the teacher training programs to ensure quality.
The National Accreditation Board approves teacher education activities based on the structure and content of the courses proposed by the institution. Thus, courses conducted by different institutions differ in content and structure. For example, the course content of the Institute of Education at the University of Cape Coast, the Center for Continuing Education, is somewhat different from the course structure and content of the University of Cape Coast, and neither of these two programs match the co. Basic Education (DBE). The DBE and four-year Trained Teacher Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE) programs run by CEE are not only the same, but the same. Although effectively the same products attract the same client, product preparation is done in different ways.
Many of these programs create nurseries for basic schools - up to senior high schools. Alternative pathways, or programs that prepare teachers, are seen in situations where there is a shortage of teachers and more teachers should be trained in a very short time. However, due to the shortage of teachers, there is a tendency to combine quality in this effort to produce more teachers.
The contributions to the problems of pedagogy and teacher retention, as noted by Xiaoxia, Hiju, Niksi, and Stone (2010), are varied and complex, but what educators are most concerned about is alternative learning through which teacher education takes place. The main goal of many paths is to quickly track the training profession of teachers. The necessary preparation of potential teachers before becoming a classroom teacher has been little-changed. Those in favor of alternative routes, such as Teach for America (TFA), according to Xiaoxia, Hiju, Niksi, and Stone (2010), have defended their alternatives, saying that even students are employed for short periods of pre-service training. , Students are academically brilliant and therefore also have the ability to learn a lot in a short period of time. Others argue that where there is a general shortage of teachers in subjects such as English, Science and Mathematics, good candidates who have completed English, Mathematics and Science courses at the undergraduate level should deliberately introduce alternative paths. None of these arguments in support of the alternative path put the alternative teacher in Ghana for educational programs, where I leave academically gifted students to study for reasons
When the goal is to fill only empty classrooms, quality teacher preparation topics are somehow passed into the background. At the selection stage, alternative paths simplify the need for access to teacher educational programs. For example, when the second batch of UTDBE students were admitted, I can confidently say that the requirements for admission to the COE were not met. It was emphasized that the applicant must be a professional private tutor who was employed by the Ghana Education Service and the applicant placed a certificate on top of the Basic Education Certificate examination. The grades obtained do not matter. If this path had not been made, Coe's would not have trained
Even with the regular DBE program, I have come to realize, recently, that I must say that no one in particular is attracting very high grade candidates. As I have learned now it has a huge impact on both the quality of the teacher and the effectiveness of the teacher. The fact of the matter is that Ghana’s teacher education programs are not considered prestigious programs and therefore applicants with higher grades do not like education programs. And so most applicants for teacher education programs have relatively low grades. I have noticed that the minimum entry grades for senior secondary school examinees in West Africa have been downgraded from C-6 to D-8 after the CEO's entry into the DBE program for the academic year 201 / 201-2017 was published. This drop in the standard can only be attributed to Coe's ’efforts to attract more applicants. Universities, too, reduce their cut point for education programs to attract more candidates. Universities, as claimed by Levine (2006), view their teachers' educational activities as cash cows. Force their desire to earn money, to increase their enrollment, to lower their admissions as much as the COE. In order to achieve the goal of increasing numbers, admission standards have been lowered internationally. This poor recruitment practice or degradation poses a serious challenge to teacher education.
The Japanese have enabled teachers to make teaching and learning dignified and as a result can attract students with higher grades. One could argue that the supply of teachers in Japan has exceeded the demand for supplies and so the authorities are not under any pressure to hire teachers. Their system will not be harmed if every effort is made to select high grade students in their education program. To them, issues related to teacher selection are more important than issues related to recruitment. But in Western and African countries recruitment issues are the main reason why the demand for teachers is much higher than the supply. There are problems in hiring teachers in Western and African countries because the teaching and teaching profession is not very respectable. Teacher educational programs therefore do not attract students who get very good grades. It should be noted that it is not only the recruitment process that determines whether a teacher's education will be dignified, but also the recruitment of candidates with higher grades, ensuring that after training teachers will display two characteristics required for effective teaching - quality and effectiveness. The teaching profession is held in high esteem and is therefore able to attract the best of applicants but can be effective. Otherwise, regardless of the incentives set out to attract applicants and the measures that will be taken to strengthen teacher education, teacher education programs may not fully achieve its purpose.
Teacher preparation programs are needed to strengthen teacher readiness, to provide better training at the primary teacher training level, and to provide and maintain support in the first few years after teacher recruitment. This is why Lump up (2007) supports the idea that pre-service teacher education programs should ensure that teachers gain a good idea of effective teaching strategies. Methodology Classes should therefore be focused on effective teaching strategies. Regardless of the training program, the program must be structured so that the trainees can acquire knowledge in educational subjects in addition to knowledge of the subject. They should have adequate exposure to practical classroom experiences such as on-campus and off-campus learning practices. Whether or not there is a need to fill vacancies in the classroom due to the absence of higher teachers, facing many countries, the goal of the teacher preparation program should be to create quality and effective teachers rather than just filling vacancies
DETERMINANTS OF TEACHER QUALITY
The quality of the teacher has such a huge impact on the learning of the students. Anyone who has been with the teaching business will agree that teachers are central to efforts to reform quality education. Prigagula, Agam and Salmon (200) described teacher quality as an important element of schooling that has a significant impact on student learning. Where students have quality and effective teachers, students gain education and inefficient teachers show a decline. Respectful of the classroom teacher, the quality of the teacher is a continuous process of self-assessment so that there is professional development and a self-renewal for educational development. For a teacher, an effective or quality teacher is one who must have good subjects and educational knowledge, which he can create.
Prominent teachers possess and display many exemplary qualities. Every child has the skills, the subject and the sense of education to reach out to. They help equip their students with the breadth of knowledge and awareness to make sound and unique judgments. They are; Educational knowledge, content content knowledge and experience.
PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE
Trainees in every profession receive a kind of education that will give them insight and prepare them for the work ahead. This is called pedagogical content knowledge or pedagogical knowledge of the teacher. The knowledge that teachers use in organizing classrooms as educational content knowledge can be described as providing students with the skills they need to demonstrate skills on their assigned students and to manage them. Generally speaking, educational knowledge is the knowledge that teachers use to facilitate students' learning. Educational content knowledge comes in two main forms - teachers ’knowledge of students’ pre-concepts and teachers ’knowledge of teaching methods. Students come to class with many preconceptions about the subjects they are learning. The distribution of preconceived notions may or may not be consistent with the actual subject matter. Teachers must have a good idea of both types of pre-concepts, in order to help students, replace inconsistent pre-concepts or create consistent pre-concepts for semantic learning. Teachers should have a book of teaching methods to facilitate the learning of students. Very little or no learning occurs among students when methods are applied incorrectly. As a result, when both of them are weak, the teacher becomes bad because the teacher who has spoken according to his choice cannot fulfill his responsibility. Because of this, during teacher preparation, emphasis has been placed on knowledge of educational content.
Teachers acquire educational content knowledge from a variety of sources. Friedrichsen, Abel, Perez, Brown, Lancford, and Volkman (2009) distinguish three possible sources with knowledge of educational content. They listed the sources as professional development programs, teaching experience and ultimately teachers ’own learning experience. In their days as students of the teacher education system, teachers are assisted in a variety of ways in acquiring knowledge of educational content. During practice, for example, they learned how to retain educational skills. Teacher education programs and other professional development programs create opportunities for teachers to gain knowledge of educational content through workshops, lectures, working together with colleagues, and teaching practice. Their experiences in their classrooms then lead them to gain insights when they teach students which methods work best in specific situations. That last source is usually ignored. This indicates that the professional knowledge of the teacher begins to develop before becoming a candidate in the teacher's education. This means the way teachers influence for the professional knowledge and beliefs of potential teachers. This kind of teaching is usually ignored by teachers at all levels because it is unintentional and informal.
Educational content knowledge can be acquired through formal and informal means. Educational opportunities for knowledge of educational content are, formally, designed by the institution, based on learning objectives that usually constitute the prerequisite, formal way of certification. In formal education, students have a clear idea of the purpose of acquiring educational skills. On the other hand, informal studies are not intentionally organized. It happens accidentally and can therefore be considered a ‘side effect’. As described by Clickman et al (2012), it has no goal in terms of learning outcomes and is largely made up of context. This is often called learning through experience. Informal, but intentional, learning situations exist. It occurs in situations such as group learning, counseling, and deliberate practice of certain skills or tools. Warquin (2010) describes informal, but deliberate, as informal learning. Unlike formal education, non-formal education does not take place in educational institutions and does not attract credentials. Whether the educational content is knowledge
Educational Content Knowledge is used to bridge the gap between content knowledge and actual learning. By bridging the gap, it ensures that content discussions are relevant to education and that discussions themselves focus on content. For example, knowledge of educational content is a subject that teachers must pay attention to. Teachers who possess and use knowledge of educational content have good control over classroom management and evaluation, knowledge of the learning process, teaching methods, and distinctive features (Harar, Eicler, and Rankel, 2014). These national teachers are able to create an environment that facilitates learning and is able to present or assist in learning ideas even by lazy students. They are able to facilitate learning by students so teachers with higher educational content knowledge can be classified as quality teachers. It is noteworthy that it is not only the educational content knowledge that makes a good teacher. If the teacher is proficient in educational knowledge, he will not be good for the teacher if he does not have content knowledge.
The goal of education is to help trainers develop intellectual resources that enable them to fully participate in the core domains of teaching and research. The degree to which the teacher can help students learn depends on the subject that the teacher has. Needless to say, teachers ’knowledge of the subjects influences their efforts to help students learn that subject. If a teacher is ignorant or not well informed, he cannot do any good to the students, but he will do them a lot of harm. When the teacher knows the knowledge in such a way that it is narrow, or does not keep accurate information about a particular subject, he will pass on this shallow or incorrect information to the students. This type of teacher will firmly recognize consistent preconceptions and challenge students ’misconceptions. This kind of teacher can introduce incorrect writings because he changes the texts illegally or inappropriately. It is the teacher’s concept of knowledge that shapes the kind of questions he asks and the ideas he resubmits as well as the kind of tasks the teacher designs.
Teachers ’content knowledge must go beyond specific topics in their curriculum. This is because teachers do not just define students' ideas. Teachers explain to students why a particular idea or definition is acceptable, why students need to know it, and how it relates to other ideas or definitions. This can be done properly if the teacher has a good idea about the subject. This type of understanding includes understanding the intellectual context and value of the content. Understanding the content strengthens the teacher's confidence in teaching the lesson, making him / her a better teacher.
Experience is one of the reasons for the diversity of teacher salaries worldwide Han (Hanushek and Rivkin, 200). The pay difference, based on how many years the teacher has served, suggests that employers believe that teacher experience builds him / her into a better teacher and that such a teacher must be motivated to stay in the service. Although some research (2011) such as Hanushek suggests that experience only positively affects teacher quality in the first few years, and more than five years later, experience can have a positive effect on teacher performance, common sense tells us who has done better in the long run. And does so with ease. Experience will therefore continue to provide, since, more experienced teachers tend to learn more about the subjects they teach and think and behave appropriately in the classroom and have a much more positive attitude towards their students.
Teachers who have spent more time teaching usually feel confident in their ability to use training and assessment tools. These teachers were able to reach even the most difficult-to-reach students in their classrooms. They have more confidence in their ability to control classes and prevent incidents that can make the teaching and learning process difficult. Their experience makes them much more patient and tolerant than their peers with years of experience (Alters and Douharty, 2007). New teachers acquire and develop the teaching and classroom management skills needed to make them effective teachers. They spend time learning - trying to figure out exactly what they're doing. Teachers who have taught for more years will want to build as little experience as they have acquired a rich store of knowledge. Teachers ’sense of effectiveness is usually associated with good behavior, behavior and interactions with their students. Experienced teachers have already achieved this. These explain why experienced teachers are generally more effective than newcomers.
The tendency of more experienced teachers to be better teachers than their own experience is that experienced teachers have acquired additional training and therefore acquired the skills to gain additional experience, needed to be effective from direct experience. Usually teacher training does not end at the primary teacher training stage. These give teachers the opportunity to learn emerging teaching techniques and refresh the memory of what they learned. Most of these seminars, workshops and conferences add to the knowledge base of teachers. Another advantage of experienced teachers is that they face more situations to develop the skills needed to be effective teachers through additional direct and sometimes indirect experience. This means, they fell into challenging situations that gave them the opportunity to build their skills. It doesn't matter if they were able to cope with this challenging situation. Teachers learn from them if they face difficult situations in their class. If teachers are able to overcome difficult situations, they can learn how to deal with such situations in the next encounter, otherwise their reflection and suggestions give co-teachers an idea of how to go about the same or similar situation. They are more likely to come in contact with current and capable models. More experienced teachers are more likely to demonstrate higher self-efficacy in most cases, as they have learned the necessary classroom management and teaching skills from their peers. Teachers who have been in active service for many years will probably be classified as quality teachers because of what they have learned from their interactions and experiences with other educators from in-service training, skills development workshops and seminars in their classrooms.
The aim of teacher education is to provide teacher training programs to teacher trainees through primary teacher training and to provide in-service training for practicing teachers with the aim of creating knowledgeable and committed teachers for effective teaching and learning. These programs vary from country to country. Even within the same country, teachers may be given different trainings for the same certificate. These alternative programs are a specially created one, where there is a shortage of teachers and attempts are being made to train a large number of teachers at once. These alternative programs simplify the requirement for teacher certification, allowing serious challenges for those who cannot be teachers under normal circumstances. Since a large number of teachers are needed in a short period of time, their training is tracked somewhat quickly resulting in commonly known as half-baked teachers - low quality teachers that applicants who are not enrolled in the program of their choice come only to teach because they have nowhere else to go . These national applicants will not be dedicated to teaching services until the end. Quick tracking primary teacher preparation actually damages the mission for which the primary teacher training institute was created. Because the teachers produced through such training are usually not of high quality.
The most important factor in school success that involves student success is a teacher who is well prepared. A well-trained teacher is one who has gone through a teacher training program. So teachers need to work to make the necessary improvements in teacher preparation. In order to strengthen teacher readiness, teacher preparation programs must provide strong preparation during primary teacher training and support them until fresh teachers are included. Emphasis should be placed on achieving effective teaching strategies for pre-service teacher education. This can be done in methodology classes and in relevant field experience. The students who get quality teachers achieve and the ineffective teachers show a decrease, so having high quality teachers in the classroom has a positive impact on the achievement of the students.
Educational content knowledge, content knowledge and experience determine the quality of a teacher. Teachers have made the subjects accessible to students using educational content knowledge. There are two broad fields of knowledge of educational content knowledge: teachers ’knowledge of students’ subject-pre-concepts and teachers ’knowledge of teaching strategies. What educational content knowledge does is it links content knowledge and teaching practice, ensures that discussion of content is appropriate and that it focuses on the content of the discussion and helps students retain the content. The teacher’s job is to facilitate content learning by students. The degree to which the teacher can help students learn depends on the fact that the teacher has content knowledge. Teachers who misinterpret or misinterpret the subject harm their students with the same false or shallow subject knowledge for their students. The latest experience among the three determinants of teacher quality. Teachers who have served for many years receive additional and more specific training by attending seminars, conferences and workshops, and in-service training, and therefore tend to understand their job better. They can meet and solve many challenging situations in their classroom and therefore know exactly what to do in any situation.