The History of Special Education
The biggest and most pervasive problem of special education, as well as my own journey in education, is the relationship of special education with general education. There has been or may be a lot of giving or receiving, I pull and push when it comes to educational policy, and the teaching and learning and special education services of human educators who provide those services on both sides of the religion, like me.
For the past 20+ years I have been on both sides of education. I have seen and felt the situation of being a regular mainstream teacher with special education policy, special education students and their specialized teachers. I was in favor of special education, trying to make regular education systems work more effectively by revising the instructions and materials of their special education students and with a little more patience and empathy.
In addition, I became a mainstream regular education teacher who taught regular education inclusion classes in my class in an attempt to determine how best to work with some new special education teachers and his or her special education students. And, conversely, I regularly engage with my special education students in some areas of scholarship and a teacher who incorporates a special education with the changes that I thought should be implemented. I can tell you first hand that none of this was easy given between special education and regular education. I don't see it becoming easy to push and pull too soon.
So, what is special education? And what makes it so special and yet sometimes complex and controversial? Well, special education as its name implies is a specialized branch of education. It claims the lineage of Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard (1775-1838), "Averon's Wild Son" and "Anne Sullivan Massey (1866-1936)" who "performed miracles" and "teachers" With Helen Keller.
Special educators teach physical, cognitive, language, learning, sensory, and / or sensory abilities that deviate from the general population. Special educators provide specific guidelines to meet the needs of segregation. These teachers have largely made education more accessible and accessible to their students who will otherwise have limited access to learning because they are struggling with any disability.
Teachers are not the only ones who play a role in the history of special education in this country. Physicians and clergy, including the above-mentioned Ethard, neglected and often insulted the people of Edward and Seguin (1812-1880), Samuel Gridley Ha (1801-176-1876) and Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1878787-18561). Sadly, not studying in this country was often too neglected and offensive as it was time to treat students differently.
Our country also has a rich literature that details the treatment given to people with disabilities in the 1800s and early 1900s. Sadly, in these stories, as well as in the real world, part of our disabled population was often confined to prisons and cage rooms without decent food, clothing, personal hygiene and practice.
For example of this individual treatment in our literature we should look no further than Tiny Tim in Charles Dickens's 'Christmas Carol' (1843). Also, many times people with disabilities were often portrayed as villains, such as J.M. J.M. in Barry's book "Peter Pan."
The prevailing view of the writers of this period was that both should be subjected to misfortune as a form of obedience to the will of God, and because this apparent misfortune was ultimately done for their own benefit. It was hard for people with disabilities to make progress at this moment with this thinking that concerns our society, literature and thought.
So, what will society do about these unfortunate people?
However, by the end of the nineteenth century the size of these organizations had grown so dramatically that the goal of rehabilitating people with disabilities did not materialize. Institutions became instruments of permanent separation.
I have some experience with these divisive principles of education. Some of it is good and some is not very good for it. You see, I’ve been a self-employed teacher over the years in multiple environments in public high school, middle school and elementary school self-help classrooms. I have also taught in several special education behavioral self-involved schools that completely separated these troubled students from their mainstream peers in terms of managing their behavior which kept them from their homes, friends and colleagues even sometimes in completely different buildings that were in different cities.
Over the years many specialized educational professionals have become critics of the above-mentioned organizations that separate and separate our children from the disabled. Irwin Hao was the first to advocate for the eviction of our youth from this huge institution and the relocation of residents to their families. Unfortunately this practice has become a logistical and realistic problem and it took a long time before it became an effective alternative to institutionalization for students with disabilities.
On the positive side, you may be interested to know that in 1817 the first special education school in the United States of America, the American Asylum for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb (now called the American School for the Deaf), was established in Hartford, Connecticut through Gallaudet. That school still exists today and is one of the top schools in the country for hearing impaired students. True success story!
However, as you can already imagine, the long-term success of the American School for the Deaf was an exception and there were no rules during this period. And to add to this, towards the end of the nineteenth century, social Darwinism replaced the environment as the primary cause of these disabled people who deviated from the general population.
Sadly, Darwinism opened the door to the eugenics movement in the early twentieth century. People with disabilities such as mental retardation can then be further isolated and even sterilized. What Hitler was doing in Germany seems to be being done in our country, by our own people, our own people right here. Terrible and inhumane, wouldn't you agree?
Today, this type of treatment is clearly unacceptable. And in the early twentieth century it was unacceptable even to some adults, especially the parents of these disabled children. Thus, anxious and angry parents formed an advocacy group to help bring the educational needs of children with disabilities to the attention of the public. People had to see firsthand that this eugenics and disinfection movement was wrong for our students, if it was ever stopped, it would be different.
Gradually grassroots organizations made progress that some states even enacted laws to protect the disabilities of their citizens. This was a start and the other states eventually followed suit. In time, this local grassroots movement and the movement of the states put enough pressure on our elected officials to do something at the national level for people with disabilities.
In 1961, President John F. Kennedy formed a presidential panel on mental retardation. And in 1965, London B. Johnson signed the Primary and Secondary Education Act, which provides funding for primary education, and advocacy groups see access to public education for children with disabilities as expanded.
When one thinks of Kennedy and Johnson's record on civil rights, it is perhaps not surprising that these two presidents have led this national movement for people with disabilities.
This federal movement resulted in the creation of Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act. It guarantees the civil rights of persons with disabilities in the context of federally funded organizations or any federally funded program or activity. After all these years as a teacher, I personally deal with 504 cases per day.
In Congress Public 19, Public Act 99-122 was enacted, the Education for All Disabled Children Act (EHA), which established the right to public education for all children, regardless of disability. This was another good thing because before federal law was enacted, most parents had to educate their children at home or pay for expensive private tuition.
The movement continues to grow. In 1982, in the case of the Hendrik Hudson Central School District v. Rawley Board of Education, the Supreme Court of the United States clarified the level of affordable service for students with special needs. The court ruled that special education services could only provide some "educational benefits" to students. Public schools did not need to maximize the educational progress of students with disabilities.
Today, this verdict does not seem like a victory, and indeed, the same question is being asked again in our court today in 2017. However, given the time frame that was created, it was a victory because it said that special education students should not learn anything. Couldn't go through our school system. They had to learn something. If one knows and understands how laws work in this country, one knows that laws always move forward with the slightest increase that is associated with progress over time. This verdict was a victory for special education students as it added another milestone to the Crusades.
The Regular Education Initiative (RII) was established in the 1980s. It was an effort to bring back the teaching responsibilities of students with disabilities to nearby schools and regular classroom teachers. I am very familiar with regular education initiatives because I spent four years as an RII teacher in the late 1990s and early 2000s. During this time I have received certification as both a special education teacher and a regular educational teacher and am working with both competencies in a dual role as an REI teacher; Because that position was needed.
The 1930s saw a great deal of enthusiasm for our special education students. 1990 gave birth to individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA). It was and was, the foundation of the concept of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) for all our students. To ensure FAPE, the law mandates that each student receiving special education services must receive a separate education program (IEP).
The Disability Act of 1990 only reached Americans outside of public schools. And IDEA Title 3 prohibits disability-based discrimination anywhere in public housing. Full and equal enjoyment of goods, services, facilities or accommodation in public places was expected. And of course public accommodation also includes most places of learning.
Also, the full inclusion movement gained much momentum in the nineties. It called for educating all students with disabilities in regular classrooms. I am very familiar with this aspect of education as well, as I have been an inclusive teacher from time to time in my career as a regular education manager and a special education teacher on both sides of the island.
Now President Bush and his Educational Reform with his No Child Left Back Act, which replaced President Johnson’s Primary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The NCLB Act of 2001 stated that special education should be focused on creating results, and with that, the accountability of educators increased sharply.
Now, this NCLB law was good and bad. Of course we all want to see the results of all our students and it is common knowledge that accountability helps these kinds of things happen. This kind of madness was such that the NCLB demanded a lot of new things, but did not provide funds or support to achieve these new goals.
Furthermore, with the advent of education and the assumption of responsibility for education as a result of the new movement of big business and corporate education, teachers began to evacuate and become more threatened. People with no educational background are now influencing their own education policy and have access to a lot of educational funds.
This craze for accountability, driven by over-quality testing, was rampant, and of course a huge number of statisticians, like the well-connected elite Trump, say to their lowest educational part, "You've been fired! It was not good for our students.
Although something good has come from this era. For example, there are cases of people with disabilities being updated with the 2004 Act (IDEA). This requires more schools to provide personalized or specialized education for children with more disabilities. Under IDEA, states that receive government funding for education must provide special education to children with disabilities to qualify. As I said before, the law is a long slow process of small steps that adds progress over time.
Towards the end, in 2015, President Obama's Every Student Success Act (ESSA) replaced President Bush's NCLB, replacing President Johnson's ESEA. Under Obama's new ESSA school, some experiments were now allowed. Hopefully, the craze for standard testing has been checked. But only time will tell. ESSA returns to more local control. You know, our ancestors were for the purpose of national control.
You can see that the US Constitution does not give the federal government any authority over education. The United States Constitution does not mention education, and for good reason. The founders wanted most aspects of life to be governed by those closest to them by state or local government or family, business and other elements of civil society.
You see, the founder was afraid of energy concentration. They believe that the best way to protect individual freedom and civil society is to limit and divide power. However, it works both ways, as states often ask themselves for feeds for more educational money. And the feeds will only pay the states extra if the states do what the feeds want ... Hmm ... checks and balances, as well as compromises can be really stingy things, right?
So the fight for education continues and pushes and pulls all the way back between the federal government and state and local governments as well as special education and regular education. And to add to this fight, recently in a lawsuit filed against the state by Connecticut Coalition for Justice for Education Fund, state judge Moukouch from Connecticut moved Shikshabrat a bit further when he included a message to lawyers during the verdict. To rebuild what level of services students with significant disabilities are eligible for.
His judgments and statements seem to be present that he thinks we are spending a lot of money for our special education students. And it is not suitable for some people because their disability is very serious. You can imagine how controversial it was and how angry it was with some people.
The results of the 2011 United States presidential election were something that very few people saw. Real estate mogul and reality star Donald Trump won the presidency and then appointed anti-people educationist Betsy Devos as the head of the country's education department. Trump's accusation against him is to drastically reduce the Department of Education, and move private charter schools to what they call a failed public education system.
No one knows for sure at the moment how this will affect our students and especially our weaker special education students. However, I can also tell you that there aren’t too many people out there who feel comfortable at the moment. Only time will tell where it is going and how it will affect our special education students ...
So, as I said before, perhaps the biggest, most comprehensive issue in special education is its relationship with general education. My own travels and the journey of our nation through the vast field of education in these years were both an interesting and a humorous subject which was, in short, controversial.
I can still remember when I first became a special education teacher in the mid-1990s. A friend’s father, who was the school principal at the time, told me to quit special education because it wasn’t ending. Okay, I’ve been out of special education for over two decades now and sometimes I don’t know if I’m a regular education teacher or a special education teacher, or both. And sometimes I think the same internal struggle can be felt in my country’s education system as I do. However, regardless, after all these years, special education is still here.
In the end, although Ivard failed to normalize Victor, the wild son of Avery, he brought about a dramatic change in Victor's behavior through education. Today, modern special education practices can be found in Etard. Her work marks the beginning of a massive effort to instruct students with disabilities marks fast forwarding in 2017 for the future of education and special education in our country . Well, I guess that depends on all of us .