Theories of Career Development
Career development is the process by which people understand them
Since they are related to the world of work and their role in it.
This is the process of career development where a person presents the identity of a job. Inside America, what we do is this is how it becomes a person's identity. When it is necessary Educating our young people that our school systems help and consider the significance. This is the responsibility of our youth and their future. Its effects and consequences Career development is an aspect of socialization as part of a broader human process Development.
Why Study Theory?
Provides "conceptual glue" for theory and research describing career behavior
As well as describe where, when and for what purpose career advice, career
Education, career guidance and other career interventions should be implemented.
The process of career development theory comes from four branches:
- Differential Psychology- Interested in work and profession
- Personality - See individuals as the organizers of their own experiences
- Sociology- Focus on professional mobility
- Evolving Psychology- Related to "Life"
“Theory is an image, an image, a description, a representation of reality. That is not the reality
That in itself is a way for us to think about some part of reality so that we can realize it. "
Theories of career development over the last 75 years fall into four categories:
1. Attribute Factor - Matching Personal Attributes with Profession - Frank Parsons (1920's)
2. Psychological - Personality type similar to work environment - Holland (1980)
3. Decision - Ecological or Sociology - Bandura (Self-Efficiency - 10 1970)
4. Developed - Lifetime Super (1950's) self concept
Holland Theory of Vocational Types
This approach pays close attention to behavioral styles or personality types as a major
Impact on career choice development. It is described as structurally interactive.
- Career choice is an expression of personality and not random
- Members of a professional group have the same personality
- People in each group will react similarly to the situation
- Professional achievement, stability and satisfaction depend on coming together Between someone’s personality and work environment.
6 Holland Types
Realistic - Hands, machines, tools, active, practical, adventurous work
High characteristics - practical, masculine, stable
Short features - sensitive, feminine, stable
Occupations - Construction, Agriculture, Architecture, Truck Driving, Mail Carrier
Investigative – Thought, analytical methods, exploration, knowledge, ideas, not social
High qualities - scholar, intellectual, critic
Lower features - strong, ambitious, adventurous
Profession - Biologist, Chemist, Dentist, Veterinarian, Programmer
Artistic – Literature, music, artistic activity, sensitive, creative, open
High qualities - expressive, creative, spontaneous
Low characteristics - orderly, efficient, conventional, social, masculine
Profession - Artist, musician, poet, interior designer, writer
Social – Training, informed, educated, supportive, helpful, avoid technical skills, empathy,
High characteristics - cooperative, friendly, humanitarian
Low Features - Ambitious, Creative, Strong,
Profession - Social Work, Counseling, Police Officer, LPN
Enterprising – Verbally skilled, persuasive, direct, leader, influential
High qualities - ambitious, adventurous, enterprising
Short features - intellectual, creative, feminine
Profession - Lawyer, Business Executive, Politician, TV Producer
Conventional – Rules and routines, providing order or direct structure, are great self
Control, respect power and status, timely, orderly
High features - stable, efficient, reliable, controlled
Short characteristics - intellectual, courageous, creative
Profession - Bank teller, clerk typist, cashier, data entry
Differentiation - The amount of scattering between one's first and second code letters;
One type refers to how clear it is.
Incongruence – Lack of fit between someone’s type and work environment. People leave
Jobs due to too many imperfections or increasing their chances
I am the best decision maker together; C's worst.
Consistency – Intimacy in the hexagon of one’s first and second choices. Superior
Continuity of one, characteristics of a more integrated person (values, interests, characteristics)
And greater professional maturity, perseverance and achievement.
Advantages of Holland Types for Career Counseling
Helps students get Centers on worldly tasks that are not irresistible. Provides helpful ways of doing this Understand different work environments.
Disadvantages of Holland Types for School Counseling
Theory does not provide insights into how to develop guidelines or guidelines for a task with students.
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
The concept of self-efficacy is central to Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory.
Through self-systems, individuals can express their thoughts, feelings,
And verbs. A person with faith evaluates on control
Its activities and environment, self-efficacy beliefs are the most influential predictions
Human behavior. Determine the level and strength of self-efficacy:
- Whether coping behavior will be initiated;
- How many efforts will result;
- How long will we continue to try to overcome the obstacles?
Self-Efficacy - Believes in one's ability to organize and perform its courses
The given achievements are built on the steps required to produce:
Four influential sources where self-efficacy has emerged:
- Individual Performance - Pre-Success Success or Failure (max)
- Bizarre experiences - meeting others, modeling, mentoring
- Verbal persuasion - verbal encouragement or discouragement
- Physiological and Sensitive Factors - The concept of stress responses in the body.
Self-efficacy plays a central role in the cognitive control of motivation, because
Controls the effort and level distribution that people will spend with their level
The effects they expect from their work.
Understanding the difference between self-recognition and self-efficacy is important.
- Self-esteem is related to a person's own values.
- Self-efficacy is related to one's perception of one's ability to reach a goal.
How Self Efficacy Affects Human Function
Behavioral choices about people if they are interested in taking on a job
They believe they can succeed. People usually avoid tasks where their self-efficacy is low, But stay busy when it’s over. Self-efficacy can be significantly higher than efficiency
Mental damage significantly increases self-efficacy as disability increases and increases Expand skills. The optimal levels of self-efficacy are slightly above capacity, which is encouraging
Motivation - People with high self-efficacy in an activity can spend more effort And elongated than less effective. On the other hand, self-efficacy may decrease.
Encourage them to learn more and prepare better than the person with a higher self Efficacy.
Thought Patterns and Responses - Lack of self-efficacy can lead people to believe that actions are
They are tougher than they actually are. This results in poor planning and stress. Higher person
Self-efficacy will identify as a cause of failure with external factors, where the self is the individual
Efficiency will account for this with less efficiency. (Example: math test)
Destiny Idea - Bandura has successfully demonstrated that individual people with self-efficacy
Understand the world in fundamentally different ways. People with high self-efficacy
Usually they have the idea of controlling their own lives: that is their own work And decisions shape their lives. On the other hand, less people will see self-efficacy. Their lives are somewhat out of their hands and with luck.
Efficacy vs. Outcome Expectations
Bandura distinguishes between expectation of results and expectation of effectiveness.
The behavior given in anticipation of the result refers to the person’s guess
There may be certain results.
The expectation of efficiency is an estimate that can be successfully executed
Behavior needs to produce the desired results.
Confidence in skills plays a central role in the career decision-making process.
People move on to professions that they think they have capabilities
Or may develop. People move away from those professions because they need their skills
Folks that don’t have rights or they can’t develop.
Relating to personal goals
We are determined to engage in specific activities to produce specific results. The goal
Helps to organize and guide behavior over a long period of time.
The relationship between goals, self-efficacy and outcome expectations is complex and
Occurs within its structure:
The triadic recordocal model of the causation of Bandura - these factors are affecting everyone
Others at the same time
- Personal properties,
- External environmental factors
In short, a person inputs (e.g. gender, race) with relevant factors (e.g.
Culture, family geography) and experience and learning to influence self-efficacy beliefs
Self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations are people’s interests, goals,
Activities and finally achieve them.
However, they are also affected by relevant factors (eg job opportunities, access
Training opportunities, financial resources).
In this theory opportunities, experiences and significant adults become important to influence the selfies of all children. Will intervene in strategic career development
Influence young people positively in the context of this theory.